Scientific Evidence For A whole Food Plant Based Diet From The World`s Top Universities

There is an ever growing mountain of scientific research that can no longer be ignored - it all points towards a whole food plant based diet low in salt oil and sugar

Here is a small selection:

The Adventist Study 60,903 participants (mostly vegetarians) had reduced risk of T2Diabetes, higher dietary fibre, lower GI & Lower Glycemic Load, less sugar, more legumes, less total fat, less saturated fat, fewer eggs, less processed meats, more good fats.

 

Dr. John McDougall – 10 cases of mostly Rheumatoid Arthritis cured by whole food plant based low fat diet. Rheumatoid Arthritis & Food Study BMJ 1981

 

A study of 20,000 slaughter house workers have increased risk of dying form certain cancers including blood cancers.

Cancer causingbovine leukemia virus, avian leucosis, herpesvirus, reticuloendotheliosis, lymphoproliferative disease viruses in poultry – there is a link between these viruses and cancer in humans.

 

2003 Study by University of California ¾ of human subjects tested positive for exposure to the bovine leukemia virus, likely through the consumption of meat and dairy products.

There is a mountain of scientific evidence that overwhelmingly points towards a whole food plant based diet low in salt, fat and sugar, chemicals : Fruit & Vegetables, whole grains like brown rice, quinoa, corn, oats, legumes. Small amounts of lean animal protein occasionally if desired. 

I will add more scientific links when I get time - there is plenty more!

To View These Studies you will have to copy and paste link to your search browser - as It would take me weeks to live link all these studies for you. 

New study from Harvard 2016,  200,000 health professionals over 20 years – plant based diet reduces risk of Type 2 Diabetes by 34% Consuming a plant-based diet—especially one rich in high-quality plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes—is linked with substantially lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a new study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

“This study highlights that even moderate dietary changes in the direction of a healthful plant-based diet can play a significant role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes,” said Ambika Satija, postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Nutrition, lead author of the study. “These findings provide further evidence to support current dietary recommendations for chronic disease prevention.”

 

Dr. Dean Ornish is a clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, Has done many different studies on whole food plant based low fat diet and disease as follows:

 

·      37 years of randomized trials and demonstration projects at the non profit Preventive Medicine Institute & the University of California School of Medicine have shown that when people with even severe coronary heart disease change to a whole foods, plant based diet low in fat, low in refined carbs, their heart disease begins to reverse. In other words blood flow to the heart improved by 300% (as measured by PET scan), and 99% of these patients stopped or reversed their heart disease.  Coronary arteries became progressively less clogged, these patients showed a 40% reduction in LDL cholesterol without any cholesterol-lowering drugs. They lost an average of 24 lbs in the first year and kept half that weight off five years later.

·      Lifestyle heart trial 5 years published in Journal of American Medical Association Regression of atherosclerosis after 1 year or more and after 5 years, in contrast the control group coronary atherosclerosis continued to progress & more than twice as many cardiac events occurred.

·      Turn on health promoting genes, turn off disease gene expression – National Academy of Sciencesstudy found that over 500 genes were effected by lifestyle changes.

·      Slow, stop or reverse the progression of early stage prostrate cancer cell growth was inhibted 8 times as much compared to the control group- Journal of Urology

·      Nutrition & Cancer – relationship of dietary protein & soy isoflavones to serum 1GF-1 & IGF binding proteins in prostate cancer lifestyle trial – very low fat vegan diet supplemented with soy protein.

·      Depression – 73% of patients with depressive symptoms became non depressed after only 12 weeks on a whole food plant based low fat diet.

·      Improvements in medical risk factors with coronary heart disease – low fat whole foods plant based diet – both men and women showed significant medicalimprovement in plasma lipids, blood pressure, body weight, exercise capacity & psychosocial. American Journal Of Cardiology

·      Telomerase & benefits of healthy living – Lancet Oncology – telomeres help prevent loss of genetic information. “this new finding that a healthy diet & exercise can also up-regulate telomerase concentrations in non-carcinogenic cells is an exciting outcome & should encourage people to adopt a healthy diet & lifestyle in order to avoid or combat cancer & age related diseases. There is now clear evidence that links telomeres & their associated proteins to cancer, CVD & ageing.” (telomere shortening leads to cellular ageing) Dr. Ornish is working with Nobel prize winning scientist Elizabeth Blackburn who discovered Telomeres.

Depression

Canadian Study published in Preventative Medicine 2013. 300,000 people found that greater fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower risk of depression, psychological distress, mood and anxiety disorders. The researchers concluded that eating anti-oxidant rich plants foods “may dampen the detrimental effects of oxidative stress on mental health”.

Study published Journal of Lipid Research, an American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Journal have found that omega 6 fatty acid – arachidonic acid (found in animal foods – especially eggs and poultry) is linked to depression.

Dr. Dean Ornish Study – as previously mentioned

 

Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn from Americas leading Heart clinic The Cleveland Clinic, 27 year study of 18 seriously ill heart patients – all were put on a whole food plant only diet no oil, low salt and sugar and low dose statins.  There were 49 coronary events in the 8 years prior to the study, there were 0 coronary events during the 12 years of follow up in 17 out of 18 patients, zero mortality after 27 years.

He has since done another clinical trial with 196 patients with similar results. Many of his patients have completely reversed heart disease – that means angiograms show arteries have now unblocked and they were essentially on death row before changing to WFPB diet with no oil, nuts, seeds and avocado. There is no man made drug on the plane that could possibly achieve results like this.

 

Professor T. Colin Campbell Nutritional Biochemist Cornell University, Author The China Study, This study is published in the best journals

and there are over 350 papers with this study.

He recently presented his 60 years of Important Scientific findings to the European Parliament.

“Casein the main protein of cows milk is the most relevant chemical carcinogen ever identified” “Casein (and most likely other

animal proteins is a more relevant carcinogen than any pesticide, herbicide, food additive, or other noxious chemical ever

tested.” This includes aflatoxin the most potent carcinogen known to man.

27 year study Cancer & Protein – striking result 20 % dietary protein from animals cancers grew well, 5% dietary animal protein cancer did not grow,

Plant based protein at 20% - cancer did not grow, Cancer can be switched on and off by nutritional means. Most people in western countries

eat 20% or more animal protein. Here is what he found:

High protein increases the amount of carcinogen into the cell.

High protein increases the amount of enzyme & speeds up conversion of carcinogen.

Animal protein changes the character of the enzyme making it more efficient to change DNA.

High protein diet increased the ability of the carcinogen to attached to DNA

High protein diet stops repair to DNA damage

High protein diet stops body repairing DNA damage.

Professor Colin Campbell says “A whole food plant based diet with little or no added fat, sugar & salt solves more illnesses than

all the pills & procedures combined” He also says that there are 1000`s of studies that show plants are protective but there are

no studies to show that animal food consumption is protective – not even one.”

China –Oxford-Cornell project and Health Project studied data from 20 million people collected by the Chinese Ministry of Health - called the Cancer Atlas, also Professor Campbell studied 6500 people in 65 Chinese villages the results of a 30 year investigation on nutrition and health and called by the New York Times “The Grand Prix of all epidemiology research” Among the findings: American men are 17 times more likely to die from heart disease than rural Chinese men.  Campbell found in Guizhou province with population of 500,00 there were no reported deaths from heart disease during one 3 year period of the study.  Chinese cholesterol was between 81 and 135, Americans have an average cholesterol of 215, In Australia 1 in 3 have high cholesterol. To avoid heart attack the Framingham study shows that you need to have a cholesterol below 150

(which is 3.8 by Australian measure) Professor Campbell and his team in their many different studies (350 papers published) found there is a close relationship between diet and diseases of affluence (chronic diseases of all types)

 

Framingham Study – large review of diet and heart disease by the National Institutes of Health 5209 people and has been running since 1948 and is now on the third generation of participants, found the leading risk factors for heart disease are: High cholesterol, high blood pressure and smoking. Those who`s cholesterol level was below 150 and LDL below 80 without using cholesterol lowering drugs never had a heart attack. 35% of all heart attacks in the study subjects had a cholesterol between 151 and 200 (3.9 – 5.18 Australian measure)

 

Dr. John McDougall Newsletter

Dennis Burkitt British Surgeon serving as Head of Government Health Services, Uganda

“in Africa, treating people who live largely off the land on vegetables they grow, I hardly ever saw cases of many of the most common diseases in the United States and England, including coronary heart disease, adult onset diabetes, varicose veins, obesity, diverticulitis, appendicitis, gallstones, dental cavities, hemorrhoids, hiatus hernias, and constipation. In 20 years of surgery in Africa, I had to remove exactly 1 gallstone”. He witnessed more than 10 million people flourish on grains and tubers eating almost no meats, dairy products or processed foods. SA Medical Journal 1982 – Western Diseases & Their Emergence Related To Diet.

 

Roy Swank –Head of the Division of Neurology of the University of Oregon Medical School for 22 years, and founder of very low saturated fat diet treatment cured Mutliple Sclerosis

Swank: “We found a heavy-fat diet caused changes in circulation. After a typical, high-fat American meal red blood cells become very sticky and would bind to one another. About three hours after a meal they aggregated together to form clumps. And these clumps are large enough and tough enough so they can obstruct circulation in small capillaries throughout the body. We have also seen these changes in animals after feeding them a high-fat diet, and we also found a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in these animals. I think this kind of injury results in the perivascular lesions (damage around blood vessels classically seen in MS) that are typical of MS.” Effect of low saturated fat diet and late causes of multiple Sclerosis. Lancet 1990.

 

A 21 year study has found obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure significantly increases risk of Alzheimers disease – The Lancet of Neurology 2005.

 

World Alzheimers CongressStudy researchers examined 5395 people aged 55 and older who were free of dementia in 1993 & again in 1999 “Those who remained free from dementia had consumed higher amounts of dietary beta-carotene, vitamin c, vitamin e, vegetables. “

 

British medical journal 2012 – Low carbohydrate high protein diet & incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women. “Low carbohydrate high protein diets used on a regular basis are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease”.

 

American Internal Medicine 2010 – 2 cohort studies “the animal low carbohydrate diet was associated with a higher all cause mortality”.

 

 

Fat Paralyses Insulin -  Blood Glucose Study Journal of Applied Physiology 2005 “These data suggest that the high carbohydrate diet increased the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin.”

(Type 2 Diabetes can be completely reversed by a WFPB diet Low in SOS)

 

Walter Kempner MD American Journal of Medicine 1948 – Treatment of Hypertensive Vascular Disease with Rice Diet – “This study saw decrease in heart size, improved kidney function & hypertensive retinopathy reversal, reversal of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. “

 

 

Red meat consumption & risk of Type 2 Diabetes: 3 cohort studies meta analysis

“Our results suggest that red meat consumption, particularly processed meat is associated with and increased risk of T2D. American Journal of clinical Nutrition

 

Weight Loss Dr. John McDougall Trial 1250 people 11 days on a WFPB diet 11 days lost average 3.6lbs.

 

Epic Panacea Study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010  more than 300,000 men and women in Europe followed for 8 years is the largest study to date investigating consumption of meat and body weight and found that consuming meat in particular poultry even if the calories in a non meat mealwere exactly the same, leads to significantly more weight gain. The Epic study found increased risk of blood cancers between 56% and 280% for every 50 grams of poultry consumed daily.

 

The Adventist Study 60,903 participants (mostly vegetarians) had reduced risk of T2Diabetes, higher dietary fibre, lower GI & Lower Glycemic Load, less sugar, more legumes, less total fat, less saturated fat, fewer eggs, less processed meats, more good fats.

 

Dr. John McDougall – 10 cases of mostly Rheumatoid Arthritis cured by whole food plant based low fat diet. Rheumatoid Arthritis & Food Study BMJ 1981

 

A study of 20,000 slaughter house workers have increased risk of dying form certain cancers including blood cancers.

Cancer causingbovine leukemia virus, avian leucosis, herpesvirus, reticuloendotheliosis, lymphoproliferative disease viruses in poultry – there is a link between these viruses and cancer in humans.

 

2003 Study by University of California ¾ of human subjects tested positive for exposure to the bovine leukemia virus, likely through the consumption of meat and dairy products.

Low Carb Diet/ Paleo Diet - New England Journal of Medicine a study shows 2009 A look at the low carbohydrate diet – the arteries worsen on a low carb diet.

Article published in Cell Metabolism showing that its not just fats v`s carbs – those consuming the most animal protein had a 75% increase in overall premature mortality, a 400% increased risk of cancer deaths, and a 500% increased risk of diabetes.

Studies from more than 37,000 men in the Harvard Health Professionals follow up study and more than 83,000 women from the Harvard Nurses health Study showed that red meat consumption (low carb Diets) increased premature mortality form all causes, from cancer and from type 2 diabetes. 

20 year study published in the Journal of American Medical Association show women who ate eggs 3 or more days per week had “3 times great risk of fatal ovarian cancer than those who ate eggs less than 1 day per week”

 

World Health Organization analysed data from 34 countries in 2003 and found that eating eggs is associated with death from colon and rectal cancers.

2011 Study by National Institutes of Health showed eating eggs is linked to developing prostate cancer – 2.5 eggs per week increased their risk for a deadly form of prostate cancer by 81%.

2005 International Urology & Nephrology a study found that moderate egg consumption tripled risk of developing bladder cancer.

A review of 14 studies published in Atherosclerosis showed that people who consumed the most eggs increased their risk for diabetes by 68%, compared to those who ate the fewest. Also they found they increased their risk of cardiovascular disease by 19% and those who already have diabetes their risk for CVD jumps to 83%.

2008 in a publication for the Physicians Health Study which included 21,000 participants, researchers found that those who consumed 7or more eggs per week had almost 25% increased risk of death compared to those with the lowest egg consumption.

Egg consumption increases the risk of gestational diabetes 2011 two studies referenced in American Journal of Epidemiology.   Women who consumed the most eggs had a 77% increased risk of diabetes in one study and a 165% increased risk in the other study compared to those who consumed the least.

Canadian Journal Of Cardiology – “ceasing egg consumption after a heart attack would be a necessary act, but late”.

New England Journal of Medicine 2013 – new study shows that a by product of choline, a component particularly high in eggs, increases ones risk for heart attack, stoke and death.

Egg whites are very concentrated in protein and other man made toxic chemicals – this can increase your risk of cancer, kidney disease, kidney stones.

Arachidonic acid (a fatty acid found in animal foods – meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dairy -  in particular egg yolks and poultry are a linked to depression – due to the inflammation it causes to the brain and linked to prostate cancer. Arch. Internal Medicine 1986 vegetarian diets on plasma lipids.

 

Lancet 1994 A study of dietary fats and composition of arterial plaques found both omega 3 and omega 6 types incorporated into human atherosclerotic plaques thereby promoting damage to the arteries and the progression of atherosclerosis.

Journal American Medical Association 1990 Serial angiograms of peoples arteries show that all three types of fat saturated (animal), monounsaturated (olive oil), and polyunsaturated (omega 3 and 6 oils) were associated with significant increases in new atherosclerotic lesions over 1 year of study.  Only by decreasing the entire fat intake, including poly and monounsaturated oils did the lesions stop growing.

New Mediterranean diet study – olive oil produced no significant reduction in overall death rates, high intake of veggies, fruits, legumes, unrefined grains. (2x veg & 2 x fruit intake)  moderate fish intake,  low in meat and dairy.  In Crete the group with the highest intake of olive oil has the highest rate of CVD (CVD is Cardiovascular Disease) those without CVD had higher intakes of carbohydrates, fibre, folate, & omega 3

Olive oil impairs endothelial function-Journal of American College of Cardiology November 2000 – in other words, olive oil collects up in your arteries and goes hard like plastic like all the other animal fats & processed oils.

Olive oil, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, has been presumed to have vasoprotective properties. It appears, however, to have mixed effects on serum cholesterol, endothelial function, and coagulation. Being highly mono-unsaturated (72%), it has beneficial effects on serum lipoproteins (39–41). The major unsaturated fatty acids in olive oil are oleic acid (18:1n-9) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (42). A high-oleic and linoleic acid meal has recently been shown to impair FMD in comparison with a low-fat meal (28). Oleic acid decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells, but not as effectively as polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids (43). Whether the 17% saturated fat content of olive oil impairs this action is unknown. In a clinical study, olive oil was shown to activate coagulation factor VII to the same extent as does butter (44). Thus, olive oil does not have a clearly beneficial effect on vascular function.

  The postprandial effect of components of the Mediterranean diet on endothelial function. Vogel RA, Corretti MC, Plotnick GD. Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Nov 1;36(5):1455-60.

 

Clinical Research: Physicians Committee Publications

Diabetic Neuropathy

Neuropathy is a complication of diabetes manifesting as pain, numbness, and other nerve symptoms. The pilot study put 17 adults on a low-fat vegan diet for 20 weeks, with weekly nutrition classes. The researchers found significant improvements in pain, measured by the Short Form McGill Pain questionnaire, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument physical assessment, and through electrochemical skin conductance in the foot. The participants also lost an average of 14 pounds.

Diabetes Study

This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n=99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat plant-based diet (n=49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n=50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. Both a low-fat plant-based diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat plant-based diet.

Menstrual Pain Study

In a crossover design, 33 women followed a low-fat, vegetarian diet for two menstrual cycles. For two additional cycles, they followed their customary diet while taking a supplement placebo pill. Dietary intake, serum sex-hormone binding globulin concentration, body weight, pain duration and intensity, and premenstrual symptoms were assessed during each study phase. A low-fat vegetarian diet was associated with increased serum sex-hormone binding globulin concentration and reductions in body weight, dysmenorrhea duration and intensity, and premenstrual symptom duration.

Weight Control Study

In an outpatient setting, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a low-fat, plant-based diet or a control diet based on National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, without energy intake limits, and were asked to maintain exercise unchanged. Dietary intake, body weight and composition, resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, and insulin sensitivity were measured at baseline and 14 weeks. Adoption of a low-fat, plant-based diet was associated with significant weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women, despite the absence of prescribed limits on portion size or energy intake.

GEICO I Study

At two corporate sites of the Government Employees Insurance Company (GEICO), employees who were either overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and/or had type 2 diabetes participated in a 22-week, worksite-based dietary intervention study. At the intervention site, participants were asked to follow a low-fat, plant-based diet and participate in weekly group meetings that included instruction and group support. At the control site, participants received no instruction and made no diet changes.

GEICO II Study

In our second GEICO study, 292 GEICO employees in 10 sites across the country who were either overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and/or had type 2 diabetes participated in an 18-week worksite-based dietary intervention study. At the intervention site, participants were asked to follow a low-fat plant-based diet and participate in weekly group meetings that included instruction and group support (intervention group). At the control site, participants received no instruction and made no diet changes (control group). Weight, serum lipid concentration and glycemic control were measured at baseline and 18 weeks.

Migraine

The study assigned 42 adult migraine sufferers to either consume a low-fat plant-based diet or take a placebo supplement for 16 weeks. Participants then switched groups for a second 16-week period. During the diet period, participants consumed a plant-based diet and then an elimination diet to remove foods that are common migraine pain triggers. The severity of the worst headache pain improved significantly during the plant-based diet period, compared to the supplement period.

Reviews and Editorials

Barnard ND, Levin SM, Yokoyama Y. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Changes in Body Weight in Clinical Trials of Vegetarian DietsJ Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Jan 17. pii: S2212-2672(14)01763-8.

Yokoyama Y, Barnard ND, Levin SM, Watanabe M. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysisCardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2014 Oct;4(5):373-82.

Barnard ND, Bunner AE, Agarwal U. Saturated and trans fats and dementia: a systematic reviewNeurobiol Aging. 2014 Sep;35 Suppl 2:S65-73.

Barnard ND, Bush AI, Ceccarelli A, et al. Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's diseaseNeurobiol Aging. 2014 Sep;35 Suppl 2:S74-8.

Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, et al. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Apr;174(4):577-87.

Gonzales JF, Barnard ND, Jenkins DJ, Lanou AJ, Davis B, Saxe G, Levin S. Applying the precautionary principle to nutrition and cancerJ Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(3):239-46.

Barnard ND. The physician's role in nutrition-related disorders: from bystander to leaderVirtual Mentor. 2013;15:367-372.

Agarwal U. Rethinking red meat as a prevention strategy for iron deficiencyInfant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition. 2013;5:231-235.

Trapp CB, Barnard ND. Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetesCurr Diab Rep. 2010;10:152-158.

Trapp C, Barnard N, Katcher H. A plant-based diet for type 2 diabetes: scientific support and practical strategiesDiabetes Educ. 2010;36:33-48.

Berkow SE, Barnard N, Eckart J, Katcher H. Four therapeutic diets: adherence and acceptability. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71:199-204.

Barnard ND. Trends in food availability, 1909-2007Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1530S-1536S.

Lanou AJ. Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1638S-1642S.

Barnard ND, Levin S. Vegetarian diets and disordered eatingJ Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109:1523; author reply 1523-1524.

Spencer EH, Ferdowsian HR, Barnard ND. Diet and acne: a review of the evidenceInt J Dermatol. 2009;48:339-347.

Ferdowsian HR, Barnard ND. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipidsAm J Cardiol. 2009;104:947-956.

Barnard ND, Katcher HI, Jenkins DJ, Cohen J, Turner-McGrievy G. Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes managementNutr Rev. 2009;67:255-263.

Lanou AJ, Barnard ND. Dairy and weight loss hypothesis: an evaluation of the clinical trialsNutr Rev. 2008;66:272-279.

Olive oil

* Serial angiograms of people’s heart arteries show that all three types of fat—saturated (animal) fat, monounsaturated (olive oil), and polyunsaturated (omega-3 and -6 oils)—were associated with significant increases in new atherosclerotic lesions over one year of study.3 Only by decreasing the entire fat intake, including poly- and monounsaturated-oils, did the lesions stop growing.

* Dietary polyunsaturated oils, both the omega-3 and omega-6 types, are incorporated into human atherosclerotic plaques; thereby promoting damage to the arteries and the progression of atherosclerosis.4

* A study in African green monkeys found when saturated fat was replaced with monounsaturated fat (olive oil), the olive oil provided no protection from atherosclerosis.5

* One of the most important clotting factors predicting the risk of a heart attack is an elevated factor VII.  All five fats tested—rapeseed oil (canola), olive oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, and butter—showed similar increases in triglycerides and clotting factor VII.6

1) Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Covas MI, Fiol M, Gomez-Gracia E, Lopez-Sabater MC, Vinyoles E, Aros F, Conde M, Lahoz C, Lapetra J, Saez G, Ros E.Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial.  Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jul 4;145(1):1-11.

2) Calle-Pascual AL, Saavedra A, Benedi A, Martin-Alvarez PJ, Garcia-Honduvilla J, Calle JR, Marañes JP. Changes in nutritional pattern, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance during weight loss in obese patients from a Mediterranean area. Horm Metab Res. 1995 Nov;27(11):499-502.

3) Blankenhorn DH, Johnson RL, Mack WJ, el Zein HA, Vailas LI.  The influence of diet on the appearance of new lesions in human coronary arteries. JAMA. 1990 Mar 23-30;263(12):1646-52.

4) Felton CV, Crook D, Davies MJ, Oliver MF.  Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and composition of human aortic plaques. Lancet. 1994 Oct 29;344(8931):1195-6.

5)  Rudel LL, Parks JS, Sawyer JK.  Compared with dietary monounsaturated and saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat protects African green monkeys from coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995 Dec;15(12):2101-10.

6) Larsen LF, Bladbjerg EM, Jespersen J, Marckmann P. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Nov;17(11):2904-9.

Coconut Oil

1)  Mangiapane EH, McAteer MA, Benson GM, White DA, Salter AM. Modulation of the regression of atherosclerosis in the hamster by dietary lipids: comparison of coconut oil and olive oil. Br J Nutr. 1999 Nov;82(5):401-9.

2)  Cox C, Sutherland W, Mann J, de Jong S, Chisholm A, Skeaff M.  Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.  Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998 Sep;52(9):650-4.

3)  Nevin KG, Rajamohan T.  Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation. Clin Biochem. 2004 Sep;37(9):830-5.

4)  Ng TK, Hassan K, Lim JB, Lye MS, Ishak R.  Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in Malaysian volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Apr;53(4 Suppl):1015S-1020S.

5) St-Onge MP, Jones PJ.  Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity.  J Nutr. 2002 Mar;132(3):329-32.

Reverse Heart Disease

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2100124/

 

Nurses Health Study – Harvard

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3105270/

 

Adventist Study

http://publichealth.llu.edu/sites/publichealth.llu.edu/files/docs/sph-cancer-findings.pdf

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21411506

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677008/?tool=pubmed

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2671114/?tool=pubmed

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21547850

 

http://publichealth.llu.edu/adventist-health-studies/videos-and-media-reports/decrease-risk-colon-cancer

 

Framingham Heart Study Risk Factors

https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about-fhs/research-milestones.php

 

1928 6 month potato diet

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1252113/pdf/biochemj01140-0284.pdf

 

 

Meat Dairy & Cancer

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847855

 

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-12-11/meat-raises-lung-cancer-risk-study/984354

 

 

Dr. Dean Ornish Studies

https://www.ornish.com/proven-program/the-research/

 

Cholesterol & Alzheimers

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(05)70248-9/fulltext?refuid=S0006-3223(06)00809-2&refissn=0006-3223

 

randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet. Prev Med. 1999 Aug;29(2):87-91.
27) Raal FJ, Kalk WJ, Lawson M, Esser JD, Buys R, Fourie L, Panz VR. Effect of moderate dietary protein restric- tion on the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy: a 6-mo prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Oct;60(4):579- 85.
28) Cupisti A. Vegetarian diet alternated with conventional low-protein diet for patients with chronic renal failure. J Ren Nutr. 2002 Jan;12(1):32-7.
29) Van Eck W. The effect of a low fat diet on the serum lipids in diabetes and its significance in diabetic retinopa- thy. Am J Med. 1959; 27:196-211.
30) Kempner W. Effect of the rice diet on diabetes mellitus associated with vascular disease. Postgrad Med. 1958; 24:359-71.
31) Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, Gould KL. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990 Jul 21;336(8708):129-33.
32) Segasothy M, Phillips PA. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases? QJM. 1999 Sep;92(9):531- 44.

33.   33)  Fraser G. Ten years of life. Is it a matter of chance? Arch Intern Med. 161:1645-52, 2001.

34.   34)  Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):271-5.

35.   35)  Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift? Am J Clin Nutr. 2003

Sep;78(3 Suppl):502S-507S.
36) Nicholas P. Hays; Raymond D. Starling; Xiaolan Liu; Dennis H. Sullivan; Todd A. Trappe; James D. Fluckey; William J. Evans. Effects of an Ad Libitum Low-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Diet on Body Weight, Body Composition, and Fat Distribution in Older Men and Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:210-217.
37) Jequier E, Bray GA. Low-fat diets are preferred. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:41S-46S.
38) Astrup A, Astrup A, Buemann B, Flint A, Raben A. Low-fat diets and energy balance: how does the evidence stand in 2002? Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):299-309.
39) Wing R. Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:323-41.
40) Pinkney J. Prevention and cure of type 2 diabetes. BMJ. 2002 Aug 3;325(7358):232-3.

 

http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/10/M585.full

Neanderthals, Paleo Man  ate starchhttp://naturalhistory.si.edu/highlight/Neanderthal_Diet/

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/39/12075.abstract

http://sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2015/08/10/starchy-carbs--not-a-paleo-diet--advanced-the-human-race.html

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00114-012-0942-0

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7486/full/nature12921.html

http://ojs.ethnobiology.org/index.php/ebl/article/view/57

 

1] Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1927;40(6):818-830. Dietary Factors That Influence The Dextrose Tolerance Test. Sweeney S.

 

[2] Am J Med. 1948 Apr;4(4):545-77. Treatment of hypertensive vascular disease with rice diet. KEMPNER W.

 

[3] Postgrad Med. 1958 Oct;24(4):359-71. Effect of rice diet on diabetes mellitus associated with vascular disease. KEMPNER W, PESCHEL RL, SCHLAYER C.

 

[4] Z Klin Med. 1954;152(4):328-45. Effect of rice diet in experimental hypertension and in patients with heart, kidney and vascular diseases. KEMPNER W.

 

[6] N Engl J Med. 1971 Mar 11;284(10):521-4. Improved glucose tolerance with high carbohydrate feeding in mild diabetes. Brunzell JD, Lerner RL, Hazzard WR.

 

[5] Diabetes Care. 1983 May-Jun;6(3):268-73. Long-term use of a high-complex-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet and exercise in the treatment of NIDDM patients. Barnard RJ, Massey MR, Cherny S.

 

[7] Food Nutr Res. 2012;56. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe. Holmboe-Ottesen G, Wandel M.

 

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659900/

 

 

 

Nathan Pritikin

https://www.pritikin.com/home-the-basics/about-pritikin/38-nathan-pritikin.html

 

https://www.pritikin.com/pritikin-center-explore-the-resort/your-experience/your-results.html

 

Low Carbohydrate Diets

http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=746013

 

http://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e4026

 

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055030

 

http://jn.nutrition.org/content/142/7/1304.full.pdf+html

 

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-12-62

 

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-11-63

 

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2011/08/10/ajcn.111.018978.abstract

 

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-12-103

 

Krishnan, S. Aluminum toxicity to the brain. Sci Total Environ 71:59, 1988

Bertholf, R. Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease: prospectives for a cytoskeletal mechanism. CRC-Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 25:195, 1987

Candy, J. Aluminosilicates and senile plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1:354, 1986

Perl, D. Aluminum neurotoxicity–potential role in the pathogenesis of neurofibrillary tangle formation. Can J Neurol Sci 13(4 suppl):441, 1986

Edwardson, J. Aluminosilicates and the ageing brain: implications for the pathogesesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Ciba Found Symp 121:160, 1986

Martyn, C. Geographical relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and aluminum in drinking water. Lancet 1:59, 1989

Birchall, J. Aluminum, chemical physiology, and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 2:1008, 1988

Shore, D. Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease. J Nervous and Mental Disease 171:553, 1983

Perl, D. Uptake of aluminum into the central nervous system along nasal-olfactory pathways (letter). Lancet 1:1028, 1987

Cowburn, J. Aluminum chelator (transferrin) reverses biochemical deficiency in Alzheimer brain preparations (letter). Lancet 1:99, 1989

Greger, J. Aluminum content of the American diet. Food Technol 39:73, 1985

McLachlan D. Intramuscular desferioxamine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 337:1304, 1991.

Increase in incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. JAMA 265:313, 1991.

 

1)  Reilly JF, Games D, Rydel RE, Freedman S, Schenk D, Young WG, Morrison JH, Bloom FE.   Amyloid deposition in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex: quantitative analysis of a transgenic mouse model.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 15;100(8):4837-42.

2)  Kalaria RN. Comparison between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: implications for treatment.  Neurol Res. 2003 Sep;25(6):661-4.

3)  Mucchiano GI, Haggqvist B, Sletten K, Westermark P.  Apolipoprotein A-1-derived amyloid in atherosclerotic plaques of the human aorta.  J Pathol. 2001 Feb;193(2):270-5.

4)  Jorm AF, Jolley D.  The incidence of dementia: a meta-analysis.Neurology. 1998 Sep;51(3):728-33.

5)  White L, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, Masaki KH, Abbott RD, Teng EL, Rodriguez BL, Blanchette PL, Havlik RJ, Wergowske G, Chiu D, Foley DJ, Murdaugh C, Curb JD. Prevalence of dementia in older Japanese-American men in Hawaii: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.  JAMA. 1996 Sep 25;276(12):955-60.

6)  Hendrie HC, Osuntokun BO, Hall KS, Ogunniyi AO, Hui SL, Unverzagt FW, Gureje O, Rodenberg CA, Baiyewu O, Musick BS. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in two communities: Nigerian Africans and African Americans. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Oct;152(10):1485-92.

7)  Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, Wilson RS.  Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 Feb;60(2):194-200.

8)  Kalmijn S, Feskens EJ, Launer LJ, Kromhout D.  Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men.  Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Jan 1;145(1):33-41.

9)  Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Shea S, Mayeux R.Caloric intake and the risk of Alzheimer disease.  Arch Neurol. 2002 Aug;59(8):1258-63.

10)  Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, Van Swieten JC, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Breteler MM. Diet and risk of dementia: Does fat matter?: The Rotterdam Study. Neurology. 2002 Dec 24;59(12):1915-21.

11)  Notkola IL, Sulkava R, Pekkanen J, Erkinjuntti T, Ehnholm C, Kivinen P, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A.   Serum total cholesterol, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease. Neuroepidemiology. 1998;17(1):14-20.

12)  Kivipelto M, Helkala EL, Laakso MP, Hanninen T, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A.   Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease in later life: longitudinal, population based study. BMJ. 2001 Jun 16;322(7300):1447-51.

13)  Jarvik GP, Wijsman EM, Kukull WA, Schellenberg GD, Yu C, Larson EB.  Interactions of apolipoprotein E genotype, total cholesterol level, age, and sex in prediction of Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study.  Neurology. 1995 Jun;45(6):1092-6.

14)  Kuo YM, Emmerling MR, Bisgaier CL, Essenburg AD, Lampert HC, Drumm D, Roher AE.  Elevated low-density lipoprotein in Alzheimer's disease correlates with brain abeta 1-42 levels.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Nov 27;252(3):711-5.

15)  Hofman A, Ott A, Breteler MM, Bots ML, Slooter AJ, van Harskamp F, van Duijn CN, Van Broeckhoven C, Grobbee DE.  Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E, and prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the Rotterdam Study. Lancet. 1997 Jan 18;349(9046):151-4.

 

Dr. Dennis Burkitt – Role of Fibre in the human diet

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659900/

 

 

 

Nathan Pritikin

https://www.pritikin.com/home-the-basics/about-pritikin/38-nathan-pritikin.html

 

https://www.pritikin.com/pritikin-center-explore-the-resort/your-experience/your-results.html

 

Low Carbohydrate Diets

http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=746013

 

http://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e4026

 

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055030

 

http://jn.nutrition.org/content/142/7/1304.full.pdf+html

 

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-12-62

 

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-11-63

 

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2011/08/10/ajcn.111.018978.abstract

 

 

 

1] Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1927;40(6):818-830. Dietary Factors That Influence The Dextrose Tolerance Test. Sweeney S.

 

[2] Am J Med. 1948 Apr;4(4):545-77. Treatment of hypertensive vascular disease with rice diet. KEMPNER W.

 

[3] Postgrad Med. 1958 Oct;24(4):359-71. Effect of rice diet on diabetes mellitus associated with vascular disease. KEMPNER W, PESCHEL RL, SCHLAYER C.

 

[4] Z Klin Med. 1954;152(4):328-45. Effect of rice diet in experimental hypertension and in patients with heart, kidney and vascular diseases. KEMPNER W.

 

[6] N Engl J Med. 1971 Mar 11;284(10):521-4. Improved glucose tolerance with high carbohydrate feeding in mild diabetes. Brunzell JD, Lerner RL, Hazzard WR.

 

[5] Diabetes Care. 1983 May-Jun;6(3):268-73. Long-term use of a high-complex-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet and exercise in the treatment of NIDDM patients. Barnard RJ, Massey MR, Cherny S.

 

[7] Food Nutr Res. 2012;56. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe. Holmboe-Ottesen G, Wandel M.

8) McMurry MP . Changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels and body weight in Tarahumara Indians after consumption of an affluent diet. N Engl J Med. 1991 Dec 12;325(24):1704-8.
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11) Ring I. The health status of indigenous peoples and others. BMJ. 2003 Aug 23;327(7412):404-5.
12) Ko G. Rapid increase in the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in asymptomatic Hong Kong Chinese. Diabetes Care. 1999 Oct;22(10):1751-2.
Mann JI. Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 2002 Sep 7;360(9335):783-9.
13) Fujimoto WY. The importance of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 2000 Apr 17;108 Suppl 6a:9S-14S.
14) Goldstein BJ. Insulin resistance as the core defect in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2002 Sep 5;90(5A):3G-10G.
15) UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837-853.
16) DCCT Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long- term complications in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:977-986.
17) Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascu- lar complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28:103-117
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19) Garratt KN, Brady PA, Hassinger NL, Grill DE, Terzic A, Holmes DR Jr. Sulfonylurea drugs increase early mortal- ity in patients with diabetes mellitus after direct angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Jan;33(1):119-24.
20) Purnell JQ. Effect of excessive weight gain with intensive therapy of type 1 diabetes on lipid levels and blood pressure: results from the DCCT. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. JAMA. 1998 Jul 8;280(2):140-6.
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22) Gustafsson I, Hildebrandt P, Seibaek M, Melchior T, Torp-Pedersen C, Kober L, Kaiser-Nielsen P. Long-term prognosis of diabetic patients with myocardial infarction: relation to antidiabetic treatment regimen. The TRACE Study Group. Eur Heart J. 2000 Dec;21(23):1937-43.
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25) Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustin LS, Ludwig DS, Barnard ND, Anderson JW. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):610S-616S.
26) Nicholson AS, Sklar M, Barnard ND, Gore S, Sullivan R, Browning S. Toward improved management of NIDDM: 

 

randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet. Prev Med. 1999 Aug;29(2):87-91.
27) Raal FJ, Kalk WJ, Lawson M, Esser JD, Buys R, Fourie L, Panz VR. Effect of moderate dietary protein restric- tion on the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy: a 6-mo prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Oct;60(4):579- 85.
28) Cupisti A. Vegetarian diet alternated with conventional low-protein diet for patients with chronic renal failure. J Ren Nutr. 2002 Jan;12(1):32-7.
29) Van Eck W. The effect of a low fat diet on the serum lipids in diabetes and its significance in diabetic retinopa- thy. Am J Med. 1959; 27:196-211.
30) Kempner W. Effect of the rice diet on diabetes mellitus associated with vascular disease. Postgrad Med. 1958; 24:359-71.
31) Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, Gould KL. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990 Jul 21;336(8708):129-33.
32) Segasothy M, Phillips PA. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases? QJM. 1999 Sep;92(9):531- 44.

33.   33)  Fraser G. Ten years of life. Is it a matter of chance? Arch Intern Med. 161:1645-52, 2001.

34.   34)  Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):271-5.

35.   35)  Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift? Am J Clin Nutr. 2003

Sep;78(3 Suppl):502S-507S.
36) Nicholas P. Hays; Raymond D. Starling; Xiaolan Liu; Dennis H. Sullivan; Todd A. Trappe; James D. Fluckey; William J. Evans. Effects of an Ad Libitum Low-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Diet on Body Weight, Body Composition, and Fat Distribution in Older Men and Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:210-217.
37) Jequier E, Bray GA. Low-fat diets are preferred. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:41S-46S.
38) Astrup A, Astrup A, Buemann B, Flint A, Raben A. Low-fat diets and energy balance: how does the evidence stand in 2002? Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):299-309.
39) Wing R. Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:323-41.
40) Pinkney J. Prevention and cure of type 2 diabetes. BMJ. 2002 Aug 3;325(7358):232-3.

 

http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/10/M585.full

Neanderthals, Paleo Man  ate starchhttp://naturalhistory.si.edu/highlight/Neanderthal_Diet/

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/39/12075.abstract

http://sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2015/08/10/starchy-carbs--not-a-paleo-diet--advanced-the-human-race.html

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00114-012-0942-0

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7486/full/nature12921.html

http://ojs.ethnobiology.org/index.php/ebl/article/view/57